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Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)

 

German philosopher and critic of culture, who influenced a number of the major writers and philosophers of the 20th century Germany and France. Nietzsche's most popular book, Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883-1885), went ignored at the time of its appearance. Full of provocative ideas, Nietzsche was a master of aphoristic form and use of contradictions. Before and after the rise and fall of the Nazis, he was widely misrepresented as an anti-Semite and a woman hater, and many philosophers found it difficult to take his writings seriously. Like the Danish philosopher Kierkegaard (1813-1855), Nietzsche often contradicted himself.

"All beings hitherto have created something beyond themselves: and ye want to be the ebb of that great tide, and would rather go back to the beast than surpass man?
What is the ape to man? A laughing-stock, a thing of shame. And just the same shall man be to the Superman: a laughing-stock, a thing of shame.
Ye have made your way from the worm to man, and much within you is still worm. Once were ye apes, and even yet man is more of an ape than any of the apes. "

(in Thus Spoke Zarathustra)

Friedrich Nietzsche born  in Röcken, near Leipzig, the son of Karl Ludwig Nietzsche, a Lutheran pastor and  Franziska Nietzsche, a devout hausfrau. His father died –  mad –  in 1849. Franziska lost her youngest son in 1850 and moved her family to Naumberg, where Nietzsche spent the rest of his childhood with his mother, sister, father's mother, and two aunts.

Nietzsche began to write of his intellectual maturation from an early age. During his high school and college years, he penned nine autobiographical sketches. After years of self-scrutiny Nietzsche refused to take communion, to the shock of his mother. "My dear old Friz is a noble person, despite our differences of opinion," she wrote to her brother. "He truly interprets life or, more accurately, time and appreciates only the lofty and good and despises everything crude."

Rejecting his father's faith, Nietzsche became a lifelong rebel against Christianity. "In truth, there was only one Christian, and he died on the cross", he wrote in  Der Antichrist (1888). Nietzsche was brought up by pious female relatives. He studied classical philology at the universities of Bonn (1864-65) and Leipzig (1864-68), and became at the age of 25 a professor at the University of Basel, Switzerland. Among his acquaintances was Jakob Burckhardt, the writer of The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860). During the Franco-Prussian was he served briefly as a medical orderly with the Prussian army. Nietzsche's military career was short: he contracted dysentery and diphtheria.

In 1872 Nietzsche published his first book, Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik  (The Birth of Tragedy). He diagnosed in it human beings as subject to unconscious, involuntary, overwhelmingly self-destructive Dionysian instincts. According to Nietzsche, against this tendency the Greeks erected the sober, rational, and active Apollonian principle.

Nietzsche considered reality as an endless Becoming (Werden). Apollinian power is associated with the creation of illusion – the plastic arts deny the actuality of becoming with the illusion of timeless beauty. Dionysian frenzy threatens to destroy all forms and codes. Only the Apollinian power of the Greeks was able to control the Dionysian flood. But all illusions are temporary, and in his "experimentalist phase" (1878-1882) Nietzsche saw that the loss of Apollinian spell will make the return to Dionysian actuality even more painful. But it must be noted, that the Dionysus whom Nietzsche celebrated in his later writings, was the synthesis of the two forces and represented passion controlled. In the earlier work he favored perhaps more Apollo. His thesis, however, was, that it took both to make possible the birth of tragedy. Later in life Nietzsche addressed Cosima Wagner as "Princess Ariadne" in his letters to her, and declared that the author of them is the god Dionysus.

At Basel Nietzsche had become a close friend of Richard Wagner (1813-1883), and the second part of The Birth of Tragedy deals with Wagner's music. Nietzsche called the composer "Old Minotaur." In History of Western Philosophy Bertrand Russell remarked: "Nietzsche's superman is very like Siegfried, except that he knows Greek." By the end of the decade, Nietzsche became interested in the French enlightenment, which ended in 1878 his friendship with Wagner. The composer despised the French and searched acceptance in Germany. Also Nietzsche did not accept the rising Wagnerian cult at Bayreuth, especially with its anti-Semitism. The religiosity of Parsifal was too much for him.. "What did I never forgive Wagner?... that he became reichdeutsch," Nietzsche wrote disillusioned.

Nietzsche gave up Prussian citizenship in 1869 and remained stateless for the rest of his life. In 1879 Nietzsche resigned his professorship – or was forced to give up his chair – due to his headaches and poor health. He wandered about Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, living in boardinghouses, and producing most of his famous books.

Nietzsche respected that sincere and "genuine Christianity" which he considered "possible in all ages" – but Wagner's Parsifal with its sickly Christianity clearly did not seem to him belonging in that category. In Bayreuth Nietzsche had became increasingly aware of the impossibility of serving both Wagner and his own call.

Lou Andreas-Salomé (1861-1937), the talented and spirited daughter of a Russian army officer, became Nietzsche's most painful love. "... I lust after this kind of soul", Nietzsche wrote to her companion Paul Rée; actually he needed a young person around him who is intelligent and educated enough to serve as his assistant. "From which stars did we fall to meet each other here?" were Nietzche's first words when he saw her at Saint Peter's Basilica.

In Ecce Homo Nietzsche praised her poem, 'Hymnus an das Leben' (1882, Hymn to Life), which he set to music. "Whoever can find any meaning at all in the last words of this poem will guess why I preferred and admired it: they attain greatness. Pain is not considered an objection to life: 'If you have no more happiness to give me, well then! you still have suffering ...' Perhaps my music, too, attains greatness at this point." Possibly Nietzsche proposed marriage to her, although according to some sources he never did so. However, Nietzsche told Andreas-Salomé that Zarathustra had been conceived as an artistic substitute for the son he would never have. In Lucerne Andreas-Salomé, Nietzsche and Rée had a photograph taken of themselves, Lou kneeling in a small cart and holding a whip over the two man-team, who are pulling the cart.

"When thou goest to woman, take thy whip."

Rejected by Andreas-Salomé, Nietzsche withdrew into the existence of a tourist-scholar. He spent summers in Switzerland and winters in Italy, and published his major works in a period of ten years. Also Sprach Zarathustra (Thus Spoke Zarathustra) appeared first in three parts in 1883-1884 and was formally published in 1892. Among his other works were Jenseits von Gut und Böse (1886), Zur Genealogie der Moral (1887), Götzen-Dämmerung (1889), and Ecce Homo (pub. in 1908, written in 1888). Thus Spoke Zarathustra centered around the notions of the will to power, radical nihilism, and the eternal recurrence. Pain, suffering, and contradictions are no longer seen as objections to existence but as an expression of its actual tensions. In a note entitled 'Anti-Darwin' Nietzsche stated that "man as a species is not progressing." He substituted the ordinary conception of progress for a doctrine of eternal recurrence, and stressed the positive power of heroic suffering.

"I call Christianity the one great curse, the one enormous and innermost perversion, the one great instinct of revenge, for which no means are too venomous, too underhand, too underground and too petty - I call it the one immortal blemish of mankind." (in The Twilight of the Idols, 1888)

In January 1889 Nietzsche suffered a mental breakdown in Turin, Italy. He was found in a street, weeping and embracing a horse. Nietzsche lived first in an asylum and then in his family's care. His insanity was probably due to an early syphilitic infection. During his disease Nietzsche was almost invariably gentle and pleasant, and in lucid hours he engaged in conversation. Nietzsche spent his last decade in mental darkness and died in Weimar on August 25, 1900. After his death, his sister Elisabeth secured the rights to his literary remains and edited them for publication – sometimes in arbitrary and distorted form. Elisabeth had married in 1885 Bernhard Förster, a prominent leader of the German anti-Semitic movement which Nietzsche loathed. "For my personal taste such an agitator is something impossible for closer acquaintance," he wrote in a letter to his mother. In 1880s Elisabeth founded with Förster a German colony in Paraguay, which was meant for the "Aryans only." Förster killed himself 1889 when his hand was caught in the till. How much Nietzsche's illness – dementia paralytica or syphilis – affected his thinking and writing is open to speculations. During the second period of brain syphilis the patient often acts manic-depressively and has megalomaniac visions. During his manic period in the 1880s Nietzsche produced Thus Spoke Zarathustra, The Gay Science, and Beyond Good and Evil.

Nietzsche believed that all life evidences a will to power. Hopes for a higher state of being after death are explained as compensations for failures in this life. The famous view about the "death of God" resulted from his observations of the movement from traditional beliefs to a trust of science and commerce. Nietzsche dissected Christianity and Socialism as faiths of the "little men," where excuses for weakness paraded as moral principles. John Stuart Mill's liberal democratic humanism was for him a target for scorn and he called Mill "that blockhead." His announcement of the death of God in The Gay Science can be interpreted religiously or atheistically: "God is dead. God remains dead. And we have killed him... What was holiest and most powerful of all that the world has yet owned has bled to death under our knives: who will wipe this blood off us?..."

According to Nietzsche, the other world is an illusion, and instead of worshipping gods man should concentrate on his own elevation, which Nietzsche symbolizes in the Übermench. The contrast of "good and evil" as opposed to that of "good and bad" Nietzsche associated with slave morality. He argued that no single morality can be appropriate to all men. The meaning of history was the appearance, at rare moments, of the exceptional individual. And by creating the figure of Zarathustra he presented the teacher of the coming superman.

"My first dose of Nietzsche shocked me profoundly. In black and white he had had the audacity to affirm: 'God is dead!' What? I had just learned that God did not exist, and now someone was informing me that he had died." (Salvador Dali in Diary of a Genius, 1966)

First Nietzsche's works began to gain significant public notice by Danish critic and scholar Georg Brandes, who lectured on Nietzsche at the University of Copenhagen in 1888. The philosophers thoughts influenced among others Thomas Mann, Herman Hesse, André Malraux, André Gide, Albert Camus, Rainer Maria Rilke, Stefan George, Sigmund Freud, and Jean Paul Sartre. Bergson, like Nietzsche, developed his own philosophy of the creative will. Although the Nazis used some of the philosopher's ideas, Nietzsche was deeply opposed to the collective tendencies that labelled National Socialism. Moreover, the Nazis were not good readers in general – they burned books.

Nietzsche rejected biological racism and German nationalism, writing "every great crime against culture for the last four hundred years lies on their conscience." Radical rightists, on the other hand, welcomed Nietzsche's view of "Herrenmensch," a new type of man who with his robber instincts was able to manipulate the masses and who was a law unto himself. Adolf Hitler kept a bust of him and in 1943 gave his works to Mussolini, who did not read them. When Elisabeth Nietzsche died in 1935, Hitler participated in the funeral ceremony. The Nazis built three years later a monument for Nietzsche.

For further reading: The Madness of Nietzsche by Erich F. Podach (1931); Nietzsche by Crane Brinton (1941); Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist by W. Kaufmann (1950); International Nietzsche Bibliography by H.W. Reichert & K. Schlecta (1968); The New Nietzsche, ed. by David B. Allison (1977); Friederich Nietzsche by Otto Janz (1978, 3 vols.); Nietzsche by M. Heidegger (1979-82, 4 vols.); Spurs: Nitzsche's Styles by Jacques Derrida (1979); Nietzsche: A Collection of Critical Essays ed. by Robert C. Solomon (1980); Nietzsche by R. Schacht (1983); Nietzsche and Philosophy by G. Deleuze (1983); Nietzsche: Life as Literature by Alexander Nehamas (1985); The Importance of Nietzsche by Erich Heller (1988); Nietzsche contra Nietzsche by Adrian Del Caro (1989); Forgotten Fatherland: The Search for Elisabeth Nietzsche by Ben Macintyre (1992); Nietzsche's Voice by Henry Staten (1990); Friedrich Nietzsche by Robert Holub (1995); Thomas Mann and Friedrich Nietzsche. Eroticism, Death, Music, and Laughter by Caroline Joan S. Picart (1999); Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography by Rudiger Safranski (2001); Friedrich Nietzsche by Curtis Cate (2005); Friedrich Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography by Julian Young (2010) - Note 1: Lou Andreas Salomé became the lover of the poet Rilke and a friend of Freud.  Note 2: Nietzsche in his final years of sanity  (portrait by Stefan Zweig): "Carefully the myopic man sits down to a table; carefully, the man with the sensitive stomach considers every item on the menu: whether the tea is not too strong, the food not spiced too much, for every mistake his diet upsets his sensitive digestion, and every transgression in his nourishment wreaks havoc with his quivering nerves for days. No glass of wine, no glass of beer, no alcohol, no coffee at his place and no cigarette after his meal, nothing that stimulates, refreshes, or rests him, only the short meager meal and a little urbane, unprofound conversation in a soft voice with an occasional neighbor..."  See also: Isaiah Berlin, Volter Kilpi, Edith Södergran, Francois La Rochefoucauld

Selected bibliography:

  • Homer und die klassische Philologie, 1869
    - Homer and Classical Philology (inaugural address; translated by J. M. Kennedy, in The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Vol. 3, 1910)
    - Homeros ja klassinen filologia (suom. Pekka Seppänen, teoksessa Kirjoituksia kreikkalaisista, 2006) 
  • Die Dionysische Weltanschauung, 1870
    - The Dionysian Worldview (lecture; translated by Claudia Crawford,  in Journal of Nietzsche Studies, 1997)
  • Socrates und die Tragödie, 1870 (lecture; Socrates and Tragedy)
  • Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik, 1872
    -  The Birth of Tragedy; or, Hellenism and Pessimism (translated by William August Haussmann, 1909) / Ecce Homo: and The Birth of Tragedy (translated by Clifton P. Fadiman, 1927) / The Birth of Tragedy (translated by Francis Golffing, 1965; Walter Kaufmann, in Basic Writings of Nietzsche, 1966; Douglas Smith, 2000) / The Birth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Music (translated by Shaun Whiteside, 1994) / The Birth of Tragedy and Other Writings (translated by Ronald Speirs, 1999)
    - Tragedian synty (suomentanut Jarkko S. Tuusvuori, 2007)
  • Fünf Vorreden zu fünf ungeschriebenen Büchern, 1872 (Über das Pathos der Wahrheit; Gedanken über die Zukunft unserer Bildungsanstalten; Der griechische Staat; Das Verhältnis der Schopenhauerischen Philosophie zu einer deutschen Cultur; Homers Wettkampf;in Sämtliche Werke. Kritische Studieaufgabe in 15 Bänden, Band 1, edited by Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari, 1980)
    - The Greek State; Homer's Contest; The Relation of Schopenhauer's Philosophy to a German Culture (translated by Maximilian A. Mugge, in Friedrich Nietzsche: The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche: Vol. 2: Early Greek Philosophy & Other Essays, 1911)
    - Homeroksen kilpailu; Kreikkalainen valtio (suom. Pekka Seppänen, teoksessa Kirjoituksia kreikkalaisista, 2006)
  • Die Philosophie im tragischen Zeitalter der Griechen, 1873 (unfinished, in Sämtliche Werke. Kritische Studieaufgabe in 15 Bänden, Band 1, edited by Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari, 1980)
    - Philosophy During the Tragic Age of the Greeks (translated by M.A. Mügge, in The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Vol. 2: Early Greek Philosophy & Other Essays, 1911) / Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks (translated by  Marianne Cowan, 1962)
    -  Filosofia Kreikan traagisella aikakaudella (suom. Pekka Seppänen, teoksessa Kirjoituksia kreikkalaisista, 2006)
  • Unzeitgemäße Betrachtungen I-IV, 1873-76
    - Untimely Meditations (translated by R.J. Hollingdale, 1983) / Unfashionble Observations (translated by Richard T. Gray, 1995) 
    - Historian hyödystä ja haitasta elämälle (suom. Antti Halmesvirta, 1999)
  • Menschliches, Allzumenschliches: Ein Buch für freie Geister, 1878
    - Human, All Too Human (translated by Alexander Harvey, 1908; Helen Zimmern, 1909; Marion Faber, with Stephen Lehmann, 1984; 1986; Gary Handwerk, 1997; R.J. Hollingdale, 1997)
  • Morgenröte: Gedanken über die moralischen Vorurteile, 1881
    - The Dawn of Day (translated by J.M. Kennedy, in The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Vol. 9, 1911) / Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of Morality (translated by R.J. Hollingdale, 1997) / Dawn: Thoughts on the Presumptions of Morality (translated by Brittain Smith; afterword by Keith Ansell-Pearson, 2011)
    - Aamurusko (suom. 2011)
  • Die fröhliche Wissenschaft, 1882
    - Joyful Wisdom (translated by Thomas Common,  in The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Vol. 10, 1910) / The Gay Science (translated by Walter Kaufmann, 1966; Josefine Nauckhoff and Adrian Del Caro, 2001)
    - Iloinen tiede (suom. J.A. Hollo, 1962)
  • Also sprach Zarathustra:Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen, 1883-85
    - Thus Spake Zarathustra (translated by Thomas Common, 1917; Thomas Wayne, 2003) / Thus Spoke Zarathustra (translated by Walter Kaufmann, in The Portable Nietzsche, 1954; R.J. Hollingdale, 1961; Graham Parkes, 2005; Adrian Del Caro, 2006) 
    - Näin puhui Zarathustra (suom. Aarni Kouta 1907, tark. Otto Manninen, uusittu suom. edellisestä laitoksesta v. 1961 J.A. Hollo)
  • Jenseits von Gut und Böse, 1886
    - Beyond Good and Evil (translated by Helen Zimmern, 1906; Marianne Cowan, 1955; Walter Kaufmann,  in Basic Writings of Nietzsche, 1966;  R.J. Hollingdale, 1973; Marion Faber, 1999; Judith Norman, 2001)
    - Hyvän ja pahan tuolla puolen (suom. J.A. Hollo, 1966)
  • Zur Genealogie der Moral, 1887
    - The Genealogy of Morals (translated by Horace B. Samuel, 1923) / On The Genealogy of Morals (tranlasted by Walter Kaufmann,  in Basic Writings of Nietzsche, 1966; Douglas Smith, 1996) / On the Genealogy of Morality (translated by Carol Diethe, 1994; Maudemarie Clark and Alan J. Swensen, 1998)
    - Moraalin alkuperästä (suom. J.A. Hollo, 1969)
  • Der Antichrist, 1888
    - Antichrist (translated by Thomas Common, 1896; H. L. Mencken, 1920; Anthony M. Ludovici, 2000) / The Anti-Christ (translated by Walter Kaufmann, in The Portable Nietzsche, 1954; Anthony M. Ludovici, 2000) / The Antichrist + Fragments from a Shattering Mind (translated by Domino Falls, et al., 2002) / The Anti-Christ, Ecce Homo, Twilight of the Idols, and Other Writings (translated by Judith Norman, 2005)
    - Antikristus (suom. Aarni Kouta, 1908)
  • Der Fall Wagner, 1888
    - The Case of Wagner (translated by Thomas Common, 1896; Walter Kaufmann, in Basic Writings of Nietzsche, 1966)
  • Götzen-Dämmerung; oder, Wie man mit dem Hammer philosophiert, 1889
    - The Twilight of the Idols (translated by Thomas Common, 1896; Walter Kaufmann, in The Portable Nietzsche, 1954; Duncan Large, 1998) /  The Twilight of the Idols: Or, How to Philosophize with the Hammer (translated by Richard Polt, 1997)  / The Anti-Christ, Ecce Homo, Twilight of the Idols, and Other Writings (translated by Judith Norman, 2005)
    - Epäjumalten hämärä (suom. Markku Saarinen, 1995)
  • Nietzsche contra Wagner, 1889
    - Nietzsche contra Wagner (translated by Thomas Common, 1896; Anthony M. Ludovici, in the Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Vol. 8, 1911; Walter Kaufmann, 1968)
  • Gedichte und Sprüche, 1898
  • Gesamtausgabe, 1892 (edited by Peter Gast)
  • Grossoktavausgabe, 1894-1904 (15 vols., edited by Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche et al.; second ed.: 19 vols., 1901-13)
  •  Der Wille zur Macht, 1901
    - The Will to Power (translated by Walter Kaufmann and R. J. Hollingdale, 1968)
  • Gesammelte Briefe, 1902-09
  • Werke, 1894-1904
  • Ecce homo – Wie man wird, was man ist, 1908
    - Ecce Homo (translated by Anthony M. Ludovici, 1911; Clifton P. Fadiman, 1927; Walter Kaufmann,  in Basic Writings of Nietzsche, 1966) / The Anti-Christ, Ecce Homo, Twilight of the Idols, and Other Writings (translated by Judith Norman, 2005) / Ecce Homo: How to Become What You Are (translated by Duncan Large, 2007)
    - Ecce homo (suom. Tuikku Ljungberg, 2002) / Ecce homo: kuinka tulee siksi mitä on (suom. Antti Kuparinen, 2002)
  • Briefe an Peter Gasr, 1908
  • Friedrich Nietzsches Briefe an Mutter und Schwester, 1909
  • Friedrich Nitzsches gesammelte Briefe, 1900-09 (5 vols.)
  • The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche, 1909-13 (18 vols., edited by Oscar Levy)
  • Friedrich Nietzsches briefwechsel: mit Franz Overbeck, 1916 (edited by C.A. Bernoulli and Richard Oehler)
  • Selected Leters of Friedrich Nietzsche, 1921 (edited by Oscar Levy, translated by A.M. Ludovici)
  • Gesammelte Werke, 1920-29 (23 vols.)
  • Nietzsches Briefe, 1922 (edited by Richard Oehler)
  • Friedrich Nietzsches briefwechsel mit Erwin Rohde, 1923 (edited by Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche und Fritz Schöll)
  • Sieben ausgewählte Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Klavierbegleitung, 1924 (Vol. I of Musikalische Werke von Friedrich Nietzsche, ed. Georg Göhler)
  • Nietzsche in seinen Briefen und Berichten der Zeitgenossen; die Lebensgeschichte in Dokumenten, 1932  (edited by Alfred Baeumler)
  • Werke und Briefe, 1933-42 (9 vols.)
  • Sokrates und die griechische Tragoedie, 1933 (edited by H.J. Mette)
  • The Philosophy of Nietzsche, 1937 (edited by Geoffrey Clive)
  • Schwert des geistes: worte für den deutschen kämpfer und soldaten, 1940 (edited by Joachim Schondorff)
  • Von neuen Freiheiten des Geistes, 1943 (edited by Friedrich Würzbach)
  • Werke in drei Bänden, 1954-56 (3 vols., edited by Karl Schlechta)
  • The Portable Nietzsche, 1954 (translated by Walter Kaufmann)
  • Nietzsche: Unpublished Letters, 1959 (translated and edited by Kurt F. Leidecker)
  • Friedrich Nietzsches Werke des Zusammenbruchs, 1961 (edited by Erich F. Podach)  
  • Complete Works, 1964 (18 vols., ed. Oscar Levy)
  • Werke in zwei Bänden, 1967 (2 vols., edited by Ivo Frenzel)
  • Nietzsche Werke, Kritische Gesamtausgabe, 1967 ff (30 vols., edited by Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari)
  • Basic Writings of Nietzsche, 1966 (translated and edited by Walter Kaufmann)
  • A Nietzsche Reader, 1977 (translated by R. J. Hollingdale)
  • Sämtliche Werke, 1967-86 (15 vols.)
  • Nietzsche: A Self-portrait from His Letters, 1971 (translated and edited by Peter Fuss and Henry Shapiro)
  • Gedichte: Deutsch-Englisch = Poems: German-English, 1973 (translated by Olga Marx)
  • A Nietzsche Reader, 1977 (ed. R.J. Hollingdale)
  • Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the Early 1870s, 1979 (translated and edited by Daniel Breazeale)
  • Sämtliche Werke. Kritische Studieaufgabe in 15 Bänden, 1980 (edited by Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari)
  • Nietzsche Selections, 1993 (edited by Richard Schacht)
  • Selected Letters of Friedrich Nietzsche, 1996 (translated and edited by Christopher Middleton)
  • Unpublished Writings from the Period of Unfashionable Observations, 1999 (translated by Richard T. Gray)
  • Political Writings of Friedrich Nietzsche, 2008 (compiled by Frank Cameron and Don Dombowsky)
  • Writings from the Early Notebooks, 2009  (edited by Raymond Geuss, Alexander Nehamas; translated by Ladislaus Loöb)
  • The Peacock and the Buffalo: The Poetry of Nietzsche, 2010 (translated by James Luchte)


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